Resources

This section includes further reading on the human rights impacts of minerals covered by the Transition Minerals Tracker.

Jump to:

  1. General Resources
  2. Cobalt
  3. Copper
  4. Lithium
  5. Manganese
  6. Nickel
  7. Zinc

1. General Resources

"Inside-Out, Renewable energy, the future of mining, and the re-localization of harm", Francis Tseng, Jain Family Institute, 2020

"Mineral Production to Soar as Demand for Clean Energy Increases", World Bank press release on new report "Minerals for Climate Action: The Mineral Intensity of the Clean Energy Transition", 2020

"Mineralen voor de energietransitie: naar een koolstofarme smaneleving zonder verliezers", 11.11.11, Broederlijk Delen, CATAPA, Bond Beter Leefmilieu, Justice et Paix, FairFin, 2020

"Building a sustainable electric vehicle battery supply chain: Frequently asked questions", Natural Resources Governance Institute & Berkeley Law, Center for Law, Energy & Environment, 2020

"Human rights risks threaten battery supply chains' sustainability - now is the time to act", Stephanie Regalia, pv magazine, 2020

"The social and environmental costs of mining for green energy", Interview with Clare Church, CBC Radio, 2020

"Demand for battery metals, renewables fuelling rights violations - report", Cecilia Jamasmie, mining.com, 2019

"'Most renewable energy companies' linked with claims of abuses in mines", Kate Hodal, The Guardian, 2019

"Human Rights in Wind Turbine Supply Chains Update 2019", ActionAid and SOMO, 2019

"Global Battery Minerals Mining Map, Major Cobalt, Lithium, and Graphite Mines and Projects", Mining Intelligence, mining.com, The Northern Miner, 2019

“A New World, The Geopolitics of the Energy Transformation”, IRENA, 2019

"NGO letter to the World Bank re Mining & Renewables", Jennifer Krill, Earthworks in collaboration with over 50 NGOs including the Business & Human Rights Resource Centre, 2019

"Responsible minerals sourcing for renewable energy", Dominish, E., Florin, N. and Teske, S., Earthworks, UTS Institute for Sustainable Futures, 2019

"Mapping artisanal mining areas and mineral supply chains in eastern DR Congo", Ken Matthysen, Steven Spittaels, Peer Schouten, IPIS, Danish Institute for International Studies, 2019

“Green Conflict Minerals, The fuels of conflict in the transition to a low-carbon economy”, Clare Church and Alec Crawford, IISD, 2018

“Human Rights in Wind Turbine Supply Chains”, ActionAid, SOMO, 2018

"Material Change - A Study of Risks and Opportunities for Collective Action in the Materials Supply Chains of the Automotive and Electronics Industries", Responsible Minerals Initiative, Drive Sustainability, 2018

“Neue Technologien und alte Probleme?”, Facing Finance, 2018

"Weniger Autos, mehr globale Gerechtigkeit", Brot für die Welt, Misereor and PowerShift, 2018

"The Growing Role of Minerals and Metals for a Low Carbon Future", Word Bank and EGPS, 2017

“Driving Sustainability, Can the Auto Sector deliver sustainable mobility?”, SustainAbility, UNEP, Gordian Knots, 2016

 

2. Cobalt

"Cobalt is critical to the renewable energy transition. How can we minimize its social and environmental cost?", Bianca Nogrady, Ensia, 2020

"Cutting battery industry's reliance on cobalt will be an uphill task", Jasper Jolly, The Guardian, 2020

"Le travail des enfants dans les mines de cobalt embarasse les exploitants suisses", Markus Spörndli, swissinfo.ch, 2020

"Interconnected supply chains: a comprehensive look at due diligence challenges and opportunities sourcing cobalt and copper from the Democratic Republic of the Congo", OECD, 2019

"Mapping of the Artisanal Copper-Cobalt Mining Sector in the Provinces of Haut-Katanga and Lualaba in the Democratic Republic of the Congo", BGR, 2019

"See No Evil, Speak No Evil", Resource Matters & Sciences Po, 2019

“Amnesty challenges industry leaders to clean up their batteries”, Amnesty International, 2019

“Ford says carmakers may need to invest in cobalt mines soon", Cecilia Jamasmie, Mining.com, 2019

“Huge demand for copper, cobalt, lithium and nickel in the offing as EV uptake increases”, Tracy Hancock, Mining Weekly, 2019

"Dirty Energy", Nima Elbagir, Dominique van Heerden & Eliza Mackintosh, CNN, 2018

“Blood, Sweat, and Batteries”, Vivienne Walt, Sebastian Meyer, Fortune, 2018

“Blood Batteries - Cobalt and the Congo”, James Conca, Forbes, 2018

“Cobalt Statistics and Information”, USGS, 2019

“CNN Investigation: Daimler promises to audit cobalt supply 'to the mine”, Mark Thompson, CNN, 2018

“How Investors Can Promote Responsible Cobalt Sourcing Practices”, UN Principles for Responsible Investment, 2018

“Is your phone tainted by the misery of 35,000 children in Congo's mines?, Siddharth Kara, The Guardian, 2018

“Lithium and cobalt, a tale of two commodities”, Marcelo Azevedo, Nicolo Compagnol, Toralf Hagenbruch,  Ken Hoffman, Ajay Lala,  Oliver Ramsbottom, McKinsey & Company, 2018

“More Than a Pretty Color: The Renaissance of the Cobalt Industry", Samantha DeCarlo,  Daniel Matthews, United States International Trade Commission, 2019

“Powering Down Corruption: Tackling Transparency and Human Rights Risks from Congo's Cobalt Mines to Global Supply Chains”, Annie Callaway, Enough Project, 2018

“The Cobalt Catastrophe, How cobalt threatens to revive the horrors of Congo's imperial past”, Tausif Bordoloi, Medium, 2018

“Responsible Minerals Sourcing Moves Beyond 3TG”, John Simpson, SourceToday, 2017

“Time to Recharge, Corporate Action and Inaction to Tackle Abuses in the Cobalt Supply Chain”, Amnesty International, 2017

“Cobalt blues,  Environmental pollution and human rights violations in Katanga's copper and cobalt mines”, Fleur Scheele,  Esther de Haan & Vincent Kiezebrink, SOMO, 2016

“This is What We Die For, Human Rights Abuses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Power the Global Trade in Cobalt”, Amnesty International, and African Resources Watch, 2016

“Katanga Calling, Congolese Cobalt and Consumer Electronics” , SOMO, Friends of the Earth Netherlands, 2015

 

3. Copper

"Copper, Lead, Nickel and Zinc Join Forces to Respond to LME Responsible Sourcing Rules", The Copper Mark, 2020

Video presentation on the Copper Mark, International Copper Association, 2020

"Interconnected supply chains: a comprehensive look at due diligence challenges and opportunities sourcing cobalt and copper from the Democratic Republic of Congo", OECD, 2019

"Mapping of the Artisanal Copper-Cobalt Mining Sector in the Provinces of Haut-Katanga and Lualaba in the Democratic Republic of the Congo", BGR, 2019

“Copper with a cost – Human rights and environmental risks in the minerals supply chains of ICT”, Linda Scott Jakobsson, Swedwatch, 2019

“Huge demand for copper, cobalt, lithium and nickel in the offing as EV uptake increases”, Tracy Hancock, Mining Weekly, 2019

“Living in a Parallel Universe, First Quantum Mine vs Communities in Zambia”, Claude Kabemba, Edward Lange, Southern Africa Resource Watch, 2018

“Cobalt blues,  Environmental pollution and human rights violations in Katanga's copper and cobalt mines”, Fleur Scheele,  Esther de Haan & Vincent Kiezebrink, SOMO, 2016

“Broken Promises 2015, Environment and Human Rights impacts Behind EU Import of African Raw Materials”, DanWatch, 2015

“Impacts of Mining Extractive Industries on Women in Zambia”, ActionAid, 2015

"You'll Be Fired if You Refuse” - Labor Abuses in Zambia's Chinese State-owned Copper Mines", Human Rights Watch, 2011

 

4. Lithium

"Crossing Continents - Lithium: Argentina's 'White Gold' Rush", BBC podcast, 2020

"Globalización de las empresas de energía renovable: Extracción de litio y derechos de los pueblos indígenas en Argentina, Bolivia y Chile (“Triángulo del Litio”)", Business & Human Rights Resource Centre & Observatorio Ciudadano, Chile, 2019

“Amnesty challenges industry leaders to clean up their batteries”, Amnesty International, 2019

“Comunidades Indigenas Denuncian el Avance de la Mineria de Litio en Jujuy”, FARN, 2019

“Huge demand for copper, cobalt, lithium and nickel in the offing as EV uptake increases”, Tracy Hancock, Mining Weekly, 2019

“Indigenous people’s livelihoods at risk in scramble for lithium, the new white gold”, Eniko Horvath & Amanda Romero, Ethical Corporation, 2019

“Lithium extraction in Argentina: a case study on the social and environmental impacts", Pía Marchegiani, Jasmin Höglund Hellgren & Leandro Gómez, FARN, 2019

“The downside of electromobility: Lithium mining in South America destroys livelihoods & access to water for indigenous people”, Susanne Götze, Deutschlandfunk, 2019

“Chile's lithium - blessing or curse?”, Sophia Boddenberg, Deutsche Welle, 2018

“Impacto Socioambiental de la Extraccion de Litio en las Cuencas de los Salares Altoandinos del Cono Sur", Barbara Jerez Henriquez, OCMAL, 2018

“Lithium and cobalt,  a tale of two commodities”, Marcelo Azevedo, Nicolo Compagnol, Toralf Hagenbruch,  Ken Hoffman, Ajay Lala,  Oliver Ramsbottom, McKinsey & Company, 2018

“Lithium Report 2018”, Swiss Resource Capital AG, 2018

“Investigating Illicit Financial Flows in Zimbabwe's Lithium Mining Sector”, Farai Maguwu, TrustAfrica & Ford Foundation, 2017

“Responsible Minerals Sourcing Moves Beyond 3TG”, John Simpson, SourceToday, 2017

“Tossed Aside in the 'White Gold' Rush, Indigenous people are left poor as tech world takes lithium from under their feet”, Todd Frankel & Peter Whoriskey, Washington Post, 2016

 

5. Manganese

“Responsible Minerals Sourcing Moves Beyond 3TG”, John Simpson, SourceToday, 2017

 

6. Nickel

"Copper, Lead, Nickel and Zinc Join Forces to Respond to LME Responsible Sourcing Rules", The Copper Mark, 2020

“Ford says carmakers may need to invest in cobalt mines soon", Cecilia Jamasmie, Mining.com, 2019

“Huge demand for copper, cobalt, lithium and nickel in the offing as EV uptake increases”, Tracy Hancock, Mining Weekly, 2019

“Nickel rally fades, electric vehicle buzz doesn't”, Andy Home, Reuters, 2019

“Nickel mining: the hidden environmental cost of electric cars”, Max Opray, The Guardian, 2017

“Responsible Minerals Sourcing Moves Beyond 3TG”, John Simpson, SourceToday, 2017

“Without responsibility and transparency - Human rights risks along the nickel supply chain”, Melanie Müller and Michael Reckordt, PowerShift, philippenbüro im Asienhaus, 2017

“Contesting the Goro Nickel Mining Project”, Claire Levacher, New Caledonia: Indigenous Rights, & Sustainable Development and the Land Issue, 2012

 

7. Zinc

"Copper, Lead, Nickel and Zinc Join Forces to Respond to LME Responsible Sourcing Rules", The Copper Mark, 2020